How to choose the right ultrasonic flow meter? Popular ultrasonic flow meters Learn more about Ultrasonic Flow Meters Principle of operation The basic principle of operation employs the frequency shift Doppler Effect of an ultrasonic signal when it is reflected by suspended particles or gas bubbles discontinuities in motion. This metering technique utilizes the physical phenomenon of a sound wave that changes frequency when it is reflected by moving discontinuities in a flowing liquid.
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Abstract Water-in-diesel emulsion WiDE is an alternative fuel for CI engines that can be employed with the existing engine setup with no additional engine retrofitting. It has benefits of simultaneous reduction of both and particulate matters in addition to its impact in the combustion efficiency improvement, although this needs further investigation.
This review paper addresses the type of emulsion, the microexplosion phenomenon, emulsion stability and physiochemical improvement, and effect of water content on the combustion and emissions of WiDE fuel.
The review also covers the recent experimental methodologies used in the investigation of WiDE for both transport and stationary engine applications. In this review, the fuel injection pump and spray nozzle arrangement has been found to be the most critical components as far as the secondary atomization is concerned and further investigation of the effect of these components in the microexplosion of the emulsion is suggested to be center of focus.
Introduction Diesel engines offer better fuel to power conversion efficiency and due to their better fuel economy, diesel engines are the dominant class of engines in mass transportation, heavy industries, and agricultural sectors.
In spite of their preferable advantages, they are one of the major pollution contributors to the environment. Primary pollutants emitted from diesel engines are particulate matters PMblack smoke, nitrogen oxidessulphur oxidesunburned hydrocarbon HCcarbon monoxide COand carbon dioxide CO2 [ 1 ].
Increasing stringent regulation Ultrasonic flow meter thesis exhaust emissions drives a major research endeavour in engine development in order Ultrasonic flow meter thesis reduce these pollutants [ 23 ].
Significant reduction targets include reduction of PM from 0. Modern hardware-based solutions for pollution control such as diesel particulate filters DPFhigh-pressure fuel injection equipment FIEand sophisticated piezoinjectors and associated control systems are avenues being followed by engine designers and manufacturers.
However, these technologies come with high price tags and cannot be fitted to existing engines. Therefore, there is a pressing need for appropriate technology that can be applied to these existing engines.
One such possibility is to develop fuel-based solutions which do not rely on new hardware to control the combustion process and hence the emissions.
Research showed that WiDE used as an alternative fuel in CI engines can lead to reductions in the adiabatic flame temperature resulting in measurable reductions in the emissions [ 5 — 8 ]. There are many advantages to using emulsion fuels, such as more complete combustion, leading to better fuel economy, and cleaner burning fuels with fewer emissions.
The main mechanism causing the reduction in emissions seems to be the decrease in the temperature of the combustion products as a result of vaporisation of the liquid water and consequent dilution of the gas phase species.
As for PM emissions, the presence of water during the intensive formation of soot particles seems to reduce the rate of formation of soot particles and enhance their burnout by increased concentration of oxidation species such as OH [ 9 ].
Water can be introduced into the combustion chamber in different ways as follows: While the first two methods of water introduction are subjected to additional cost of water injection system and engine corrosion problems [ 10 ], the later method has been regarded as the most effective technique for the simultaneous reduction of both particulate matters and [ 11 ].
Moreover, WiDE is a convenient renewable fuel option as the existing engine does not require any prior or postmodification.
Till date, research on WiDE is active and even its comparative advantage to its base petroleum fuels is not precisely known.
The reasons behind this is the lack of understanding of the combustion phenomenon associated with the formation of soot inside the combustion chamber, complexity in nature of combustion chamber, unknown end-to-end physical path of emulsion evaporation and mixingand the effect of microexplosion phenomenon inside the combustion chamber.
Because of these reasons, the reported result of researches in this area has been inconsistent [ 9 ] as far as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and pollutant formation are concerned. In addition to the above mentioned problems, there are many factors affecting the atomization and the general combustion process on top of the wide operating variables.
The researches were mainly focused in specific engine operation variables and due to this, the results has become very difficult to draw a general conclusion.
at: Ruhr University, Bochum On 5th July , the eighth edition of the German Research Foundation’s Funding Atlas was published. It lists the figures for publicly funded . From to , Measure magazine was the voice of HP to its employees and associates. Published “For the people of HP,” the award-winning magazine chronicled the culture and achievements of HP from to , when our print publication moved to the Web. Ultrasonic Meter Basics Ultrasonic gas flow meters operate on the transit-time measurement principle. The basic operation is relatively simple. Even though there are numerous designs on the market today, the principle of operation remains the same (Figure 1). Figure 1 Ultrasonic meters are velocity meters by nature.
The results reported by different researchers are often conflicting, sometimes generating results that are even worse than pure diesel fuel [ 12 ]. As a result, there is still a need for further investigation especially with fuelling WiDE into compression ignition engine by varying the applied conditions.
This paper will review the current status of water-in-diesel emulsions so that to bring research works in this area under one document and to further enlighten the possible area of intervention for researchers. Methodologies Used in Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Study Different methodologies have been used to study WiDE as a fuel for internal combustion engine both inside and outside the engine combustion chamber.
The evaporation characteristics of the droplet, effect of water concentration, and total evaporation time were investigated experimentally.Ultrasonic Meter Basics Ultrasonic gas flow meters operate on the transit-time measurement principle.
The basic operation is relatively simple. Even though there are numerous designs on the market today, the principle of operation remains the same (Figure 1). Figure 1 Ultrasonic meters are velocity meters by nature.
Aug 20, · I am wondering if there are any relationships to descript pump motor Amp and actual pump flow. That is by measuring the pump motor Amp to eatimate the actual pump flow.
Xsens flow meters combine the best from inline and clamp-on flow meter technology. Our product provides accuracy and robustness equal or better than in-line flow meters installation on the outside of standrad process piping. COMPARISON OF SELECTED DIFFERENTIAL PRODUCING, ULTRASONIC, AND MAGNETIC FLOW METERS by Johnny B.
Prettyman A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment. is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her. The mission of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Silchar is as follows: To impart instruction, training and awareness to students to meet the technological and socio-economical needs of the country;.