An important factor in the decline was the increasing lack of ability and power of the sultans themselves. But, while the grand vizier was able to stand in for the sultan in official functions, he could not take his place as the focus of loyalty for all the different classes and groups in the empire. While the sipahis did not entirely disappear as a military force, the Janissaries and the associated artillery corps became the most important segments of the Ottoman army. In consequence, corruption and nepotism took hold at all levels of administration.
See the beginning of this chapter if you have not read it. Also, please note that I do not make any proceeds from the sale of this book in any way. Decline of the Ottoman Empire Rise of the Ottoman Empire If we are to understand the Persian Gulf War and the planned "New World Order," we must know the history behind the efforts of the world's power brokers to control the resources of the volatile Middle East.
It is the history of the Eastern cultures' relationship to world trade. The Roman, Byzantine, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, English, and Ottoman empires all demanded tribute from their outlying provinces and continually consumed this wealth-and eventually wealth from the center-defending against encroachment by competing empires.
The Romans extended their empire around the entire Mediterranean Sea and part of the Bible is the record of battles resisting subjugation in the peripheral province of Israel. After three hundred years of persecution, during the fourth century A. By the eighth century, just one hundred years after the death of Mohammed, the Arabs had converted most of North Africa to the Muslim faith, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, and overrun Spain.
They then entered France, but were decisively defeated by the Christians at the Battle of Tours Poiters in the year A. From the eighth to the fifteenth century, the Spanish Christians slowly pushed the Muslims back, and during the reign of Queen Isabella inthe same year Columbus reached the Americas, they drove the Muslims off the peninsula.
The searches for another route to the Far East were also attempts to envelop the Muslims in a giant pincer movement.
Portugal's coinage minted from African gold was even called the "Cruzada" the Crusade. The success of the Turkish people up to this time was due to their warlike heritage, superior cannons, and the cohesive strength of the Islamic faith.
But, as with all extended empires, the greater the distance from its center, the more difficult it became to defeat and control other societies. Though they had defeated Byzantium, they were still face to face with the Western half of the former Holy Roman Empire and its common bond of Christianity.
See footnote 2 The first came in when, in a three-hour battle, a Christian fleet "composed of Venetian, Spanish, Genoese, and papal galleys" destroyed 90 percent of the Ottoman fleet of ships in Greece's Bay of Lepanto.
For the next hundred years, the Turks tried to regain their momentum and expand deeper into Europe. But they suffered a horrendous defeat in trying to take Vienna and, weakened by that setback, lost several other cities, including Athens, to the Christians.
See footnote 3 Back to top Decline of the Ottoman Empire The battles ebbed and flowed for another hundred years, but, as America won its freedom and the French their revolution, the Moslem empire steadily gave ground. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire was imminent, and European powers started positioning themselves to claim the spoils.
France sought to maintain influence in Jerusalem, Egypt, Algeria, and later, Tunisia. Its building of the Suez Canal conflicted with Britain's plans to control the land and sea routes to Asia.
While jockeying for position in the Middle East, France and England joined forces to prevent Russian expansion from getting out of hand in the Balkans Crimean War, But ten years later, while England was occupied with the conquest of India, Russia pushed the Turks out of most of Europe.
Those gains to Russia were largely lost when Britain recalled some of her troops from India and, in concert with France, denied Russia those political gains.
Back to top Footnotes:Otto I: Otto I, duke of Saxony (as Otto II, –), German king (from ), and Holy Roman emperor (–) who consolidated the German Reich by his suppression of rebellious vassals and his decisive victory over the Hungarians.
His use of the church as a stabilizing influence created a secure empire. The Roman Empire emerged from the Roman Republic when Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar transformed it from a republic into a monarchy. Rome reached its zenith in the 2nd century, then fortunes slowly declined with many revivals and restorations along the way.
Combination of laws from the Roman Empire, organized laws (basis for the entire legal system in europe) what was the importance of constantinople from a trading perspective?
It was the largest city, center of the empire, and had east access.
The "Roman Empire" (Imperium Romanum) is used to denote that part of the world under Roman rule from approximately 44 B.C.E. until C.E. The term also distinguished imperial from Republican Rome. The expansion of Roman territory beyond the borders of the initial city-state of Rome started long before the state became an Empire.
The Decline of The Holy Roman Empire Paul, Steele, Hayden, and Nick analyze the reasons for the decline of The Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in the period from - The decline of the Holy Roman Empire in European politics was contributed to by the Reformation and subsequent religious division of .
Black Germany. History of the Black Holy Roman Empire (2) The fall of Rome. The date for the Fall of Rome is conventionally acceptable because that's when the Germanic Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor to rule the western part of the Roman Empire.