As with the chemical antioxidants, cells are protected against oxidative stress by an interacting network of antioxidant enzymes. This detoxification pathway is the result of multiple enzymes, with superoxide dismutases catalysing the first step and then catalases and various peroxidases removing hydrogen peroxide. As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidant defenses can be hard to separate from one another, but the generation of transgenic mice lacking just one antioxidant enzyme can be informative.
Manganese is a cofactor for enzymes involved in hydrolysis, phosphorylation, decarboxylation, and transamination. It also promotes activities of transferases such as glycosyltransferase, and of Current research papers on antioxidant activity synthetase and superoxide dismutase.
Manganese helps in the production of enzymes used for metabolism of proteins and fat. It supports the immune system, blood sugar balance and is involved in the production of cellular energy, reproduction and bone growth.
Manganese deficiency in humans has not been documented, but has been induced experimentally in animals. Poor growth and abnormal reproduction have been observed in rats and mice. No reported cases of manganese toxicity resulting from dietary intake have been reported. Manganese toxicity has been observed from inhalation manganese-containing dust by workers in mines and steel mills manifested by adverse effects on the central nervous system.
The upper limit of safety for manganese established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine is approximately 11 mg daily for adults. Manganese is a mineral found in large quantities in both plant and animal matter.
Only trace amounts of this element can be found in human tissue, however. Manganese is predominantly stored in the bones, liver, kidney, and pancreas.
It aids in the formation of connective tissue, bones, blood-clotting factors, and sex hormones and plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation.
Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function. Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase MnSOD.
Antioxidants scavenge damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. These particles occur naturally in the body but can damage cell membranes, interact with genetic material, and possibly contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of health conditions.
Antioxidants such as MnSOD can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.
Low levels of manganese in the body can contribute to infertility, bone malformation, weakness, and seizures. Manganese deficiencies are considered rare, however, since it is relatively easy to obtain adequate amounts of manganese through the diet.
This may be due to the fact that whole grains are a major source of dietary manganese, and many Americans consume refined grains more often than whole grains. Refined grains provide half the amount of manganese as whole grains. Manganese may be of some benefit for the following illnesses when used in conjunction with conventional medical care.
People with rheumatoid arthritis tend to have low levels of MnSOD an antioxidant that helps protect the joints from damage during inflammation.
Manganese supplementation is thought to increase MnSOD activity. In addition, a few studies of people with osteoarthritis suggest that the combination of manganese supplementation taken along with glucosamine and chondroitin can reduce pain associated with the condition.
Manganese and other trace elements are necessary for bone health. Therefore, many experts feel that appropriate balance and intake of manganese and these other nutrients may play a role in preserving bone density and preventing osteoporosis.
Although results have been conflicting, some research suggests that people with diabetes have significantly lower levels of manganese in their bodies than people without diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether this is a cause or effect of the condition.
In other words, researchers have yet to determine whether diabetes causes levels of manganese to drop or if deficiencies in this trace element actually contribute to the development of the metabolic disorder. In addition, one study found that diabetics with higher blood levels of manganese were more protected from oxidation of LDL "bad" cholesterol than those with lower levels of manganese.
LDL oxidation contributes to the development of plaque in the arteries which can lead to heart attack and stroke.
In at least one study, women who ate small amounts of manganese levels below the recommended daily amount experienced greater mood swings and cramping pain just prior to their periods than women who ate normal to high amounts of manganese.Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.5 Issue regardbouddhiste.com Rupam Bharti et al.
/ Journal of Pharmacy Research ,5(8), Review Article ited the highest antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by free radical cation scavenging activity.
The Folin Ciocalteu. Health effects Relation to diet.
Although certain levels of antioxidant vitamins in the diet are required for good health, there is still considerable debate on whether antioxidant-rich foods or supplements have anti-disease activity.
Moreover, if they are actually beneficial, it is unknown which antioxidants are health-promoting in the diet and in what amounts beyond typical dietary intake. Nkemaja Dydimus Efeze, Nantia Akono, E., Azeteh Ignatius N., Njeugna Ebenezer, Murugesh Babu, K.
and Zipo Rodulf. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research Full Length Research Paper Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Moringa oleifera leaves Suphachai Charoensin evidence that M. oleifera leaves possess antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic and chemopreventive properties. Therefore, it might be beneficial as a medicinal plant for alternative novel.
The Journal of Complementary Medicine Research is aimed to serve an intercultural contemporary approach to the knowledge about world-wide usage of complementary medicine and their empirical and evidence-based effects.
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