Durlaufthe William F. Vilas Research Professor and Kenneth J. Their opening presentations are edited and adapted here. Heckman then led a discussion between the three of the causes of this growth and potential policy responses.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world.
From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences.
Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously.
Analytical Task The general analytical problem.
In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently.
Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress.
The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it.
We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question "what causes X? Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?
If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation.
Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing.It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Using two plausible future scenarios about gender inequality, assess what processes or conditions will decide which future alternative comes to .
Assess the Marxist View of the Role of Education in Society According to Marxists, modern societies are Capitalist, and are structured along class-lines, and such societies are divided into two major classes – The Bourgeois elite who own and control . Outline and Assess the Marxist views on Social Inequality (40) One view Marxist sociologists have on social inequality is that we live in a society controlled by the Tri-level structure where the Bourgeoisie oppress the Proletariat by controlling the means of production and the manual labour they contribute to the capitalist society.
Assess the usefulness of the Functionalist view of the family (24 marks) Functionalism is a macro theory and so looks at things on a large scale they consist of structural theorists. They see society as being similar to a human body, in that the essential organs in the body perform specific functions.
Assess the claim that the main function of education is to maintain social inequality Some sociologist such as functionalist argue that the inequality of education teaches children the skills needed in the workplace and economy whereas Marxist believe education passes on ruling class ideology that supports capitalism, and femmist say that the education system is patriarchal.
More about Assess the view that the main function of the education system is to reproduce and legitimise social inequalities Assess and explain the impact of social class on inequalities in educational outcomes.