Hatch-Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act MMA " makes important revisions to copyright law to accommodate the changes in music licensing practices that resulted from the rise of digital music streaming services. The law provides for a new collective licensing scheme that ensures that licensing income will be paid to songwriters, recording artists, and for the first time, sound producers and engineers for streaming and downloads of their work. It also creates a federal right to pre sound recordings for the first time and makes them subject to the same statutory licenses as post sound recordings. The legislation also would make key changes to rate-setting proceedings for ASCAP and BMI songwriters by allowing for consideration of royalty rates for digital audio transmissions of sound recordings and randomly assigning a district court judge to hear rate-setting disputes
This study has investigated current state of interoperability among software applications used in BIM in conjunction with collaborative delivery of projects by interdisciplinary teams within the AEC industry.
The work also has analysed implications for standards in this area, identified specific interoperability issues, and made recommendations leading to improvement of interdisciplinary collaboration in BIM.
These observations have resulted with the view that the AEC industry greatly lacks efficiency and it is in a desperate need of improvement.
Reaching back to the history, teams in past would produce their information using pencil or ink and exchange sheets of paper capturing their designs. Together with the agreed set of standard drawing conversions and person-to-person office or site communication this formed very interoperable system.
With the widespread adoption of digital technology this interoperable system was exchanged for a system incorporating new methods and tools that substituted the proven ways of working. Undergoing technological and methodological changes became very visible in the AEC industry during the last decade.
Interoperability issues in BIM in light of interdisciplinary collaboration may be seen as a modern story of the Tower of Babel.
For centuries people have been involved in designing and building facilities. It was found however, that the processes utilised, the time and cost involved, the quality obtained, and the financial returns no longer meet requirements.
As an analogy, based on the description found in Encyclopaedia Britannica eb. All of this requires strong interdisciplinary teams with stakeholders willing to collaborate, including clients and their representatives, designers, contractors, and the range of specialist consultants with their deep domain knowledge and experience.
Professionals, even equipped with highest expertise, would not succeed in modern projects without sophisticated methods and tools.
Management techniques today recognise the necessity of collaboration and there are many proved approaches in place today to satisfy the demands. These techniques are almost in every case associated with information technology tools - software solutions in particular.
BIM and its increased visibility since the beginning of the last decade captures the technology and the advances of the AEC processes. With the vast amount of specialised software applications on the market, the build teams are striving to extend the new technologies and processes into their collaborative projects.
As people are subject to dialog and to understanding of each other - the software applications need to do the same. Most of the software programs however, were originally developed to work as standalone applications and are not typically designed to share data with other programs Young et al.
Different tools would normally have their proprietary data structures and often do not provide means of linking their database through a standard, which creates the biggest challenge to interoperability Douglas, Such a lack of interoperability or perhaps interoperability illusion, greatly contributes to deficiencies and errors in the AEC industry.
The chapters of the Research Report are structured to effectively take the reader through the journey of the research, from the research background to the discussion and the conclusions.
The chapters may be reviewed independently, as each one generally contains introduction, the main body and the conclusions. Appendices contain mostly auxiliary information and additional detail intended for the most dedicated enthusiasts of the subject Mador, Chapter 1 identifies the focus of the research.
It provides introduction to the research problem and the background, plus develops reasons for the research aim and the research questions.
It further enables the reader to understand the background to the findings. Chapter 2, through literature review, informs the reader what is already known about the research problem.
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