The fundamental principles of Buddhist psychology and their relevance to Buddhism as a religion By Buddhistdoor International Prof.
Mindfulness and responsibility Right of security and safety Living a life in violation of the precepts is believed to lead to rebirth in a hell.
The five precepts can be found in many places in the Early Buddhist Texts. On the other hand, living a life in violation of the precepts is believed to lead to rebirth in an unhappy destination. Comparing oneself with others, one should therefore not hurt others as one would not want to be hurt.
In the upholding or violation of the precepts, intention is crucial. These consist of injuring a Buddha, killing an arahant, killing one's father or mother, and causing the monastic community to have a schism.
The five precepts are at the core of Buddhist morality. When they become used to the precepts, they start to embody them more naturally. Religion scholar Richard Jones concludes that the moral motives of Buddhists in adhering to the precepts are based on the idea that renouncing self-service, ironically, serves oneself.
The texts describe that in the ritual the power of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas is transmitted, and helps the initiate to keep the precepts. This "lay ordination" ritual usually occurs after a stay in a temple, and often after a monastic ordination has taken place.
The ordained lay person is then given a religious name. The restrictions that apply are similar to a monastic ordination, such as permission from parents. In very solemn occasions, or for very pious devotees, the precepts may be taken as a group rather than each separately. Spiro found that someone who did not violate the precepts, but did not have any intention to keep them either, was not believed to accrue any religious merit.
On the other hand, when people took a vow to keep the precepts, and then broke them afterwards, the negative karma was considered larger as in the case no vow was taken to keep the precepts. In these perspectives, mass production of weapons or spreading untruth through media and education also violate the precepts.
The first precept prohibits the taking of life of a sentient being. It is violated when someone intentionally and successfully kills such a sentient being, having understood it to be sentient and using effort in the process.
However, it has also been pointed out that the seriousness of taking life depends on the size, intelligence, benefits done and the spiritual attainments of that living being.
Killing a large animal is worse than killing a small animal also because it costs more effort ; killing a spiritually accomplished master is regarded as more severe than the killing of another "more average" human being; and killing a human being is more severe than the killing an animal.
But all killing is condemned. At the same time, though, the Buddha is often shown not to explicitly oppose war in his conversations with political figures. He may have believed such involvement to be futile, or detrimental to Buddhism. Nevertheless, at least one disciple of the Buddha is mentioned in the texts who refrained from retaliating his enemies because of the Buddha, that is King Pasenadi Sanskrit: The texts are ambiguous in explaining his motives though.
In the chronicle, the king is saddened with the loss of life after a war, but comforted by a Buddhist monk, who states that nearly everyone who was killed did not uphold the precepts anyway.
There are prohibitions on certain types of meat, however, especially those which are condemned by society. The idea of abstaining from killing animal life has also led to a prohibition on professions that involve trade in flesh or living beings, but not to a full prohibition of all agriculture that involves cattle.
For example, the Thai Santi Asoke movement practices vegetarianism. This principle states that a Buddhist monk cannot accept meat if it comes from animals especially slaughtered for him. Some teachers have interpreted this to mean that when the recipient has no knowledge on whether the animal has been killed for him, he cannot accept the food either.
Similarly, there has been debate as to whether laypeople should be vegetarian when adhering to the five precepts. Vietnamese teacher Thich Nhat Hanh gives a list of examples, such as working in the arms industry, the military, police, producing or selling poison or drugs such as alcohol and tobacco.
But there have been some exceptions of people who did not interpret the first precept as an opposition to war.
For example, in the twentieth century, some Japanese Zen teachers wrote in support of violence in war, and some of them argued this should be seen as a means to uphold the first precept.
Teachers like the Dalai Lama and Shengyan have rejected forms of protest like self-immolation, as well as other acts of self-harming or fasting as forms of protest. In some Buddhist countries, such as Sri Lanka and Thailand, capital punishment was applied during some periods, while during other periods no capital punishment was used at all.
In other countries with Buddhism, like China and Taiwan, Buddhism, or any religion for that matter, has had no influence in policy decisions of the government.
Countries with Buddhism that have abolished capital punishment include Cambodia and Hong Kong. Many people in these countries consider abortion immoral, but also think it should be less prohibited.
Perrett, following Ratanakul, argues that this field research data does not so much indicate hypocrisy, but rather points at a "middle way" in applying Buddhist doctrine to solve a moral dilemma.
Buddhists tend to take "both sides" on the pro-life—pro-choice debate, being against the taking of life of a fetus in principle, but also believing in compassion toward mothers. This position, held by Japanese Buddhists, takes the middle ground between the Japanese neo-Shinto "pro-life" position, and the liberationist"pro-choice" arguments.
Having had abortion, Thai women usually make merits to compensate for the negative karma.Buddhism's psychological orientation is a theme Rhys Davids pursued for decades as evidenced by her further publications, Buddhist Psychology: An Inquiry into the Analysis and Theory of Mind in Pali Literature () and The Birth of Indian Psychology and its Development in Buddhism ().
Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. Background: Buddhism currently has about million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion after Christianity, Islam and regardbouddhiste.com was founded in Northern India by Siddhartha Gautama (circa to BCE) and has spread into much of the far regardbouddhiste.com is making major inroads into North America.
Buddhism, then, like other scientific pursuits (e.g., physics, chemistry, behavior analysis), seeks to understand the nature of the physical world.
Although it is a meditative rather than proactive system of gaining knowledge, Buddhism may be considered scientific, in Russell's sense of the term at least. The Comparative study between Hinduism and Buddhism regardbouddhiste.com 29 | P a g e undermine our notions of a fixed and rigid self-identity, to show rather that it is changeable, mutable and.
Buddhism (/ ˈ b ʊ d ɪ z əm /, US also / ˈ b uː-/) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
An Indian religion, Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting .